I. Definition Logos is a way of arguing calmly and carefully, using reason alone and not relying on the emotions. Logos (LOH-gohs) is a Greek word meaning “reason” or “rationality.” It comes from the philosopher Aristotle, who emphasized the difference between logos and pathos, or emotion. We might say that logos comes from the mind, while pathos comes from the heart.   II. Examples of Logos ... »


I. Definition Ethos was one of Aristotle’s three modes of persuasion, standing alongside logos (logical argument) and pathos (emotions). Ethos is the trickiest of the three to define, but it roughly means credibility or character. It’s the strategy of showing your audience that you’re trustworthy and honorable, and you know what you’re talking about. This is usually done through tone, but there ar... »


I. Definition An inference is a process of drawing conclusions based on the evidence. On the basis of some evidence or a “premise,” you infer a conclusion. For example: Based on this premise… …you can infer: Weather forecast says 80% chance of thunderstorms It’s a good idea to bring an umbrella There are over 40 million volumes in the university library They probably have a copy of Pla... »


I. Definition Humanism is a belief in the value, freedom, and independence of human beings. For a humanist, all human beings are born with moral value, and have a responsibility to help one another live better lives. Humanism emphasizes reason and science over scripture (religious texts) and tradition, and believes that human beings are flawed but capable of improvement. It also tries to discover ... »