Paradox of Omniscience

What is the Paradox of Omniscience?

The Paradox of Omniscience asks a big question: Can someone really know everything? “Omniscience” is a fancy term for knowing all that can be known. But what if there are things that no one can know? The trouble starts when we think about if an all-knowing person, or “omniscient being,” could know these impossible things. Like, there’s a rule in science called Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle that says you can’t know both where a tiny particle is and how fast it’s moving at the same time. So, could an all-knowing being know both? If they can’t, they might not really know everything. But if they can, it seems like they’re breaking the rules of science.

Let’s try two simple ways to understand this better:

1. An all-knowing being should know the answer to every question, including really hard ones like what will happen tomorrow or mysteries that no one else can solve. We wonder if it’s even possible for someone to have this kind of perfect knowledge.

2. Sometimes, our world’s rules make it seem like some things just can’t be known. If that’s true, then maybe being all-knowing doesn’t mean knowing things that are impossible to know. Instead, it could mean something else, like knowing all the things that can be known within the rules of our world.

Examples of the Paradox

  • A person claims to know exactly what will happen in the future. This seems impossible because it suggests that everything is already decided, and that doesn’t fit with our idea that people can make their own choices. It’s an example of the paradox because it puts the idea of knowing everything against the idea of freedom to choose.
  • A teacher says they know the answers to all questions, even ones that haven’t been asked yet. This feels like a paradox because questions that haven’t been asked don’t have answers, and how can you know an answer to a question that doesn’t exist?
  • A computer is programmed to learn and store all the information in the world. But even with all that information, there are things the computer can’t predict or solve, like new problems that haven’t happened yet. This shows the limits of what can be known, even for something designed to know a lot.
  • An ancient story talks about a god who knows the secrets of the universe. But then the story also says that people have the power to surprise this god with their choices. This is a classic case of the paradox, where a story suggests a being knows everything but also hints that there are things it doesn’t know.
  • A scientist thinks they’ve figured out a way to know both the position and speed of a particle at the same time, defying the Uncertainty Principle. However, other scientists doubt this and say it’s not possible according to the laws of physics, highlighting the paradox between what is believed to be knowable and the natural limits set by our world.

Related Topics

  • Free Will: This is about whether people can choose to do things on their own, without everything being already planned out for them. It’s connected to the paradox because if someone knew everything, including the future, it seems like there wouldn’t be room for free will.
  • Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: In science, this principle says that you can’t know certain things about tiny particles at the same time, like where they are and how fast they’re moving. It’s an important part of our puzzle because it’s about limits to what can be known.
  • Infallibility: This idea is about not being able to make mistakes. People talk about infallible beings in some religions, and it makes us wonder if being unable to make mistakes is like or different from knowing everything.
  • Determinism: Determinism is the theory that everything that happens is set by what happened before it, like a line of dominoes falling. It’s part of the conversation because if everything is determined, then maybe it could all be known in advance by an all-knowing being.

Why is it Important?

Even though it seems like the Paradox of Omniscience is far from everyday problems, it actually makes us think deeply about how much anyone can truly understand or predict. This isn’t just about gods or supercomputers – it’s about all of us. Every day, we try to figure things out, make choices, and wonder about the future. But there are always surprises, things we didn’t see coming, and questions we can’t answer.

Looking at the paradox helps us see the difference between what we can know for sure and what we’re guessing at. For young people learning about the world, it’s really valuable to understand that some things are certain, like math facts, but other things, like what job you’ll have when you grow up, aren’t as clear. This balance between the known and the unknown affects decisions, hopes, and even how we interact with others.

Students, for example, can take comfort in understanding that some questions don’t have answers yet, and that’s okay. It means there’s always more to learn and discover. For those interested in science, the paradox encourages pushing the boundaries of what we believe is possible to learn.


To wrap it up, the Paradox of Omniscience isn’t just a tricky question for smart people to argue about. It’s about digging into what it means to know something for sure. It challenges us to ask: Is there a limit to what anyone can know? How does what we think we know shape our choices and the world around us?

This puzzle goes back a long way and shows up in religion, science, and just thinking about life. As we chat about it, argue, and try to solve it, we’re not just learning about some old philosophical idea – we’re learning about ourselves and how much we can understand about the big, complicated world we live in.