The Utility Monster

What is The Utility Monster?

Let’s say it’s your friend’s birthday, and there’s a yummy cake ready for everyone to enjoy. But imagine that one friend says they could enjoy the cake way more than anyone else, like ten times more! To make the party the best it can be, should you just let that one friend have all the cake because they’ll get the most happiness from it? This weird idea is kind of like what philosophers call the Utility Monster. It’s a tough question about how to share things so that everyone ends up feeling good.

The Utility Monster isn’t an actual scary creature, but rather a tricky problem about fairness and joy. It’s about imagining if someone could get way more pleasure from everything than the rest of us. If we want to spread cheer the best we can, should that mean this person gets everything? Sounds pretty unfair, doesn’t it?

This idea was first thought up by philosopher Robert Nozick back in 1974. He wanted to question the rule of utilitarianism, which is the idea that we should do things that make the greatest number of people as happy as possible. Nozick brought up the Utility Monster to show that always following this rule could lead to unfair moments, like giving one person everything just because they seem to enjoy things more.

What does The Utility Monster really mean?

Let’s start with two simple explanations to really understand the Utility Monster:

1. Think of the Utility Monster as a person who can feel happiness in a huge, never-ending way. If you were trying to share happiness around in a group, and one person could feel happiness much more than anyone else, the Utility Monster is like saying, “Let’s give all the happiness to that one person.” This goes against what most of us believe: that everyone should get their fair share.

2. It’s also about questioning if there’s ever a point where making one person super happy isn’t worth it if it means everyone else gets less. The Utility Monster brings up a big what-if: what if there was someone who could always be happier with more and more, no matter how much they already have? Do we keep trying to make that one person the happiest they can be, or do we say that everyone else deserves some joy too?

Examples and Why They Matter

  • Imagine a classroom where one student gets all the new books and learning tools because they enjoy learning way more than the other students. This is an example of the Utility Monster because it shows that if we just care about the total amount of learning joy, we might ignore that all students deserve a chance to learn and enjoy new books, not just the one who loves it the most.
  • Consider a family with limited money trying to decide on a vacation. If one family member seems to get far more happiness from expensive trips than the others do from simple outings, the Utility Monster problem would ask if it’s right to spend all the money on that one person’s dream trip, leaving none for the others’ small joys.
  • When charities decide who to help, they might come across the Utility Monster issue. If they meet a person who seems to get so much more happiness from help than most, they have to figure out if it’s fair to focus all their resources on that person, instead of helping many others a little bit.
  • A tech company develops a new video game. If they notice that one group of gamers appears to enjoy their games far more than anyone else, they could face a Utility Monster dilemma. Should they only make games that fit that one group’s taste, neglecting all other players’ enjoyment?
  • At a hospital, doctors have to decide how to use a limited supply of medicine. The Utility Monster challenge here would be if one patient responds to the medicine with dramatic improvement, while others only get a bit better. The doctors have to figure out if they should give all the medicine to that one patient or share it among many, even if the results aren’t as amazing.

Why is it Important

Understanding the Utility Monster helps us to think about fairness, not just in philosophy class, but in everyday choices too. It’s important because it reminds us that sometimes the rule of making the most people happy can lead to ignoring the needs and rights of others. This concept can also help us make better decisions about how we share things like money, time, and resources. For example, in a family, school, or even a whole country, thinking about the Utility Monster can encourage everyone to make sure that what’s fair for one person is also considered for everyone else.

When we think about these tough questions, it can make a big difference in how we treat people and what kinds of rules or laws we think are best. The Utility Monster makes us realize that even what seems like a good choice at first, like making one person very happy, might not be the best if it means that others don’t get their share of happiness.

Related Topics

There are several concepts linked to the idea of the Utility Monster that also make us think about fairness and happiness in society:

  • Utilitarianism: This is the bigger idea that the Utility Monster is questioning. Utilitarianism is about doing what creates the most happiness for the most number of people.
  • Egalitarianism: This is the belief that everyone deserves equal rights and opportunities. When we talk about the Utility Monster, it makes us think about how egalitarianism might suggest that everyone should get an equal share of happiness.
  • Resource Allocation: This is a real-life problem about how to distribute things that people need or want. The Utility Monster challenges us to think about how to do this fairly, rather than just giving more to whoever seems the happiest.
  • Income Inequality: This talks about how money is shared out among people in a place. The Utility Monster can be a way to discuss if it’s right that some people have way more money than others because it seems like they enjoy it more.


The Utility Monster is a very interesting puzzle that pushes us to think about how happiness and fairness play out in our lives and decisions. It shows us where the rule of “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” can hit a snag and lead to unfair situations. By keeping the Utility Monster in mind, whether we’re figuring out how to split a cake or make a rule for everyone, we understand better why it’s so key to think about how we share things so that everyone gets a fair shot at joy.